Food Addiction: Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Potential Cures
Updated: Mar 20, 2020
1. What is food Addiction?
We all have to eat to survive, so aren’t we all food addicts?
In a way, yes, which is why compared to other forms of addiction, food addiction is particularly complicated.
Fortunately, the scientific and psychological communities, along with our culture in general, are beginning to recognise and clarify the issue.
The American Society of Addiction Medicine defines addiction as: “A primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry."
Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social, and spiritual manifestations.
This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors”.
In short, food addiction is when the need for food leads someone to desire and pursue it over other reasonable considerations such as personal health, family, friends, work, or strong personal desires like appearance or avoiding obesity-related health issues like diabetes.
The Science of Food Addiction
For most of human history, finding enough food to survive was difficult.
In some environments, food was extremely scarce, and people who stored extra nutrients, such as fat, were able to survive, while those who did not store as much fat didn’t make it.
Over the course of only a few decades, we’ve experienced a rapid shift that flipped this evolutionary benefit on its head. We now have an abundance of food at our fingertips, and the human body simply has not kept up with the speed of change.
We have also altered the kinds of food we eat in significant and important ways. “Junk food” is now a substantial part of many modern diets.
Junk food even has its own scientific term: hyper-palatable food. It is so appealing to our basic craving for fats and sugars that we have serious difficulty resisting it – possibly to the level of cocaine high.
This is an especially big problem because of how our bodies and brains are wired. Our bodies secrete certain hormones that tell us when we’re full, but hyperpalatable food may be overriding those hormones by overstimulating our reward centers, much like our bodies and brains react to an addictive drug.
If left unchecked, this process can cause us to overeat and eventually lead to obesity, even for people who were not previously overweight.
In fact, many in the obesity community are suggesting that a large part of the obesity epidemic is caused by food addiction.
Classifications Food addictions is not universally recognised but is gaining acceptance as a legitimate problem
Food addiction treatment becomes even more difficult when considering it alongside other more “established” food disorders.
This has led to a debate in the community about the exact place food addiction should occupy in the area of eating and substance abuse conditions.
Reasons Food Addiction Is Not Universally Recognised
The DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version Five) (5) is the final word on anything psychiatric and is where the discussion usually begins for mental health diagnoses.
During the transition from the 4th to the 5th version, some advocated that obesity and addiction be viewed as essentially the same thing.
This, however, was not ultimately accepted – many understandably did not want to label obese people as essentially mentally insane. Some also argued that the addiction model for understanding food behaviours had some shortcomings, as well as gaps in hard support.
As a result, food addiction was not officially recognised, still leaving its exact classification a little murky.
Reasons Food Addiction Is Gaining Acceptance
The idea of treating food addiction as a true addiction now has many advocates.
For example, Nora Volkow, the director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse, controversially announced her support in 2012 for treating food addiction similar to other forms of addiction.
While this and other advocacy have not led to full acceptance of the concept of food addiction, it has led to a greater awareness of it.
Food addiction also seems to stand on its own when comparing it to other overeating disorders. For instance, one disorder recognized by the DSM-V that is commonly misrepresented as food addiction is Binge Eating Disorder, or BED.
Food Addiction and BED do have many similarities such as: